Origin of Music
   18th Century
   Presence of Borbon dinasty in Spain modified our music. It introduced homophony with disonances learnt from italian music, instead of old contrapunctus. Musicians of this age discuss the role of note B in octave and other questions.
   Feijoo sustained polemics between old and modern musicians. Indeed, a musical printing was created. Antonio Eximeno or Esteban de Arteaga, expelled Jesuits, will write a history of spanish music.

Origin of Music

   Novelties caused a hold up in religious music. This one was kept by Sebastián Durón (1660-1716), who discussed on dissonances and rules of composition. He enjoyed italian techniques and wrote music for theater.
   José de Torres Martínez Bravo, Antonio Literes (1673-1747) and José de Nebra (1702-1768) and sons followed him in Royal Chapel. A clever musician was Antonio Rodríguez de Hita (1724-1787). This historian dealt with theories and wrote zarzuelas with libretti by Ramón de la Cruz. In Catalonia there were composers as Pedro Rabassa (1694-1760) and José Pons.

Instructive Diapason


Pablo Minguet Yrol
Rules and Advices (Madrid, 1752)
   Chamber music for kings and nobles illustrates profane music. It is performed with violin, viola, violoncello and double bass -often keys-. Santiago de Murcia, master of the Queen, stood out among virtuous guitarists. Frair Basilio -Miguel García- surprised Boccherini because of his technique, as well as Fernando Fernandiere.

   Foreign musicians lived in Spain, as napolitan Domenico Scarlatti (1685-1757), master of keyboard and writter of sonatas. His disciples were Sebastián de Albero (1722-1756) and Friar Antonio Soler (Olot, 1729-1783), who lived in El Escorial and wrote Sonatas and Quintets for keys and strings, following the cello player in Royal Chapel: Luigi Boccherini (1743-1805).
   An important violin player was José de Herrando (1680-1762), friend of Torres Villarroel and author of a theoric treatise.

Manuscript of Stabat Mater by Antonio Soler


The Music
   Many nobles were protected musicians: Tomás de Iriarte in his poem The Music (1780) remembers them. Other institutions helped music and dance; theaters, as Caños del Peral one, were adapted for spiritual concerts from 1787. Presence in 1737 of Farinelli (1705-1782) -Carlos Broschi- changed musical perspective until his depart in 1759. His operas, with Metastasio‘s libretti, marked a triumph of italian fashion in art. Different ways in scenic theater would be the scenic tonadilla, opereta in one scene, or the melologo, declamation with musical sketches.
Prelude by Antonio Soler