Prehistorical Music
   Spanish music begins singing and knocking or percuting different objects. Adding pieces of skins to vessels, whistling on pipes or rubbing strings offer interesting effects. Painting on walls in caves prove it, specially in Mediterranean area.
   Roman Hispanic literature presents allusions to instruments, andalouisan dancer girls or habitudes, but we cannot always imagine the way in wich performing was made.

Painting on Walls: dancers?


Beatus from Silos
   Hispanic Music
   Until 11th century our Peninsula cultivated a music written by pneumata. In spite of its visigothic origin, it has been called mozarabic singing. It was performed during lithurgic ceremonies and it is yet difficult to be read in our days. It was probably influenced by jew, christian and even north-african music.


Musical manuscript from
Santo Domingo de Silos
   We can notice it at the recitation of hispanic Pater Noster from codex as Leon’s Antiphonarium one and books in Santo Domingo de Silos or San Millán de la Cogolla. At the end of 15th century Cardinal Cisneros asked Alonso Ortiz to compile many books with this music for Mozarabic Toledo’s Chapel.
Mozarabic Antiphonarium (León)

   It would be forgotten after roman rite, established about 1080, though it remained in a special way in Castilian mozarabian communities and churchs.
   We do not know very much on lay music for weddings or funerals.
   A special mention is due to hebrew and andalousian compositions, coming from an oral tradition. Living testimonies can help us today to recreate this variety.

Arabian lutes


Book of Songs
   Gregorian Singing
   Also known as carolingian-roman: it was cultivated since 12th century in Catalonia, since Castille was jealous of its old ways. Gregorian singing -produced by Gregorius I’s (540-604) reformations between 6th and 13th centuries- was performed by a single voice during the Mass. One of its variations is called tropos, short text sung between longer pieces.
   Works in this style are included in Calixtinus Codex, Red Book from Montserrat and the Burgos, Huelgas’ Monastery one. The trouble is whether they come from a peninsular source or not.