Mass by
Cristóbal de Morales
    16th Century
 
   In Carlos 1st age there were composers as Mateo Flecha "the Old" (1481-ca.1549), author of The Salads (Prague, 1581), a gener that combinates verses in different languages.
 
   Cristóbal de Morales (Sevilla, ca.1500-1553) studied in Rome, where he published several Masses in 1544. Other composers were Pedro de Pastrana, Juan Vázquez or Diego Ortiz.
 
   In Philip 2nd age lived Gabriel Gálvez, Andrés Torrente, Juan Navarro and Rodrigo de Cevallos.
 
   Francisco Guerrero (ca.1527-1599), who travelled to Italy and published his work between 1555 and 1589, worked in Seville.

Cipher
for organ

 

Officium Defunctorum
   The most important artist in this century, Tomás Luis de Victoria (Ávila, 1548-1611), learnt in his native town's Cathedral. He worked in Rome and published about 170 works -65 motetes, 34 masses 37 officcia for Holy Week, Magnificat and Psalms- from 1572. After 1587 he worked for the Empress, whose death was the occasion for a famous Officium Defunctorum (1605) for six voices.
 
   His polychoralism -compositions for several choirs- and sense of harmony -for writing flats and sustained notes- made him a forerunner of Baroque. He was protected by Philip 3rd.

Manuscript letter by Tomás Luis de Victoria

 

The Master
    Instrumental music
 
   After 1536 instrumental music is often printed.
 
   The first masterwork could be The Master (1536) by Luis de Milán (Valencia, ca.1500-1561), devoted to Joan 3rd in Portugal. It includes phantasies, pavanas, tientos, villancicos, ballads and original works in wich vihuela admits human voice.

The Dolphin (1536)

 

Three Books of Music
   It would be followed by The Dolphin (1538), by Luis de Narváez, and Three Books of Music in Cipher for Vihuela (Seville, 1546) by Alonso de Mudarra. Other vihuela players were Enríquez de Valderrábano author of the anthology Jungle of Sirens (1547), Diego Pisador -Book of Music for Vihuela (1552)- and Miguel de Fuenllana -Orphenica Lyra-.

 

Book of New Cipher
   Their equivalent for organ would be the Book of New Cipher for Keys, Harp and Vihuela (Alcalá de Henares, 1557) by Luis Venegas de Henestrosa and the Works of Music for Key, Harp and Vihuela (1578) by Antonio de Cabezón (Burgos, 1510-1566), edited by his own son. Both works show the ability of music for being adapted to different instruments or even to human voices.
 

Works of Music for Key, Harp and Vihuela

 
    Theory and treatises
 
   There are several treatises on plain singing, as Domingo Marcos Durán or Francisco Tovar ones.
 
   Bartolomé Ramos de Pareja (¿1440-1521?) was andalousian. His De Musica tractatus sive Musica practica (1482) deals with the division of the octave.
 
   Fray Juan Bermudo published a Declaration of musical instruments (1555) and Fray Tomás de Santa María an Art of Playing Phantasy (1565).

Cipher for Harp or Organ

 

De Musica libri septem
   Francisco Salinas (Burgos, 1513-1590), organ player and chairman in Salamanca, shows in his De Musica libri septem (1577) the relationship between verse and melody.
De Musica libri septem