F. Padilla Ortiz: Juana la Loca.
F. Padilla Ortiz (1848-1921),
Juana the Fool.

  • Spanish Romantic Panorama:
         Romanticism is a complex period that show different features depending on the country where it is developped. In Spain Romanticism is a feeling rather than a thought. We have to consider the historical events on wich it is projected. Arrival of Napoleon troops in Peninsule will provoke Spanish Independence War: it is a typical romantic war.

         As Romantic movement begins, many spanish artists will cultivate the different aspects of this new cultural chapter.

  • genders:
      F. Madrazo: La condesa de Vilches, c.1853.
      Federico de Madrazo,
      Countess of Vilches, c.1853.

      1º.- Portrait:
          One of the most outstanding authors in this gender was Federico de Madrazo (1815-1894). He is seen as one of the most important portraitists in spanish Romanticism as well as in the whole Europe. We can appreciate from his works a perfection in drawing and a psychological study of persons. His production is numerous: he painted hundreds of portraits. He was a chamber painter and, twice, a director of Prado Museum.

           Antonio Esquivel (1806-1857) was also an important portraitist, born in Seville. We can observe in his works an academic touch. He gave his creatures a sentimentalism according with romantic ideals.

    • J.P. Villamil: Llegada del tren a Gijón, 1852.
      J.Pérez Villamil,
      Arrival of the Train to Gijon, 1852.

      2º.- Landscape:
           Landscape is another typical gender in Romanticism. Nature is useful for painters to project freely their feelings and subjectivity.

           Before Romanticism, landscape appeared as a background for portraits or pictures on History, specially in Barroque. Objects without a didactic purpose were not considered as art. Now, in 19th century, landscape becomes a new gender as important as picture on History.

           One of the most important artists was Jenaro López de Villamil (1807-1854). He used for his landscapes a nervous and pasted touch of brush in order to get softer and more delicate atmospheres.

      Eugenio Lucas: Escena de toros, c.1890-1900.
      Eugenio Lucas Villamil,
      Scene of Bulls,

      3º.- painting on Customs:
           The so-called Romantic Art on Customs is representated by "brave vein" painters as Eugenio Lucas (1858-1918) and Leonardo Alenza (1807-1845). They take Goya as a master and keep a popular ambiance of brave girls, bandits, bullfightings, toreros, inquisitorial acts and sorcerers.
      Their touch of brush looks like a sketch full of chromatic matter, pointing to Impressionism.

      Eduardo Rosales: El Testamento de Isabel la Católica.
      Eduardo Rosales,
      Will of Isabel la Católica.

      4º.- Historical painting:
           This gender was developped not only in Romanticism, but also in Barroque and Neoclassicism, as is shown in David matters. Canvas on History are usually of a big size. About the second half of 19th century the gender achieves a singular importance. That was due to competions organized by St. Fernando Academy and other National Exhibitions. Historical subjects are often a cause for winning a medal.
      Antonio Gisbert: Los Comuneros de Castilla.
      Antonio Gisbert,
      Comuners of Castille.
      • Artists:
        • Antonio Gisbert (1834-1901)
        • José Casado del Alisal (1832-1886)
        • Eduardo Rosales (1836-1873)
        • Mariano Fortuny (1838-1874)

    Written by:
    Beatriz Aragonés Escobar.
    Licentiate in Art History.

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