Termae of Colonia Clunia Sulpicia, at Coruna del Conde (Penalva de Castro, Burgos).
Los Arcos I
Plan of the termae of Clunia "The Archs I" (press to enlarge)

At researchs of Colonia Clunia Sulpicia can be found three different termal wholes very outstanding since an archaelogical perspective. Two of them -the greatest- are public and placd side by side: The Archs I and The Archs II-. A third one, probably for a private or restricted use, is close to the comitium.
Most important features of each whole are:
  • "The Archs I", is the first one: a termal whole with a symmetrical design, i.e., its main rooms are duplicated and placed according to a longitudinal axis. Probably they were designed like that in order to destinate each section to a sex: men at right hand; women at left.
    So entry was common: it was made by a semicircular porticated exedra. At both sides rooms were duplicated: a palestra with peristylum -porticated patio with columns-. It gave access to the apoterium or dressing-room. Behind them there was the frigidarium or cold swimming-pool and the tepidarium or tempered water. At the center of these rooms, behind the entry, there was a garden with the natatio or general swimming-pool. Behind this garden, communicated with
    Los Arcos I
    "The Archs I"
    tepidarium there is a room for passing to the caldarium, a common room with two independent swimming-pools with warm water at each side. Reason for that was taking the greatest advantage to the warmth heating up just one room. At its left there is a circular room that could have been a sudatio or sauna. There were also toilettes and rooms for services to maintain the whole.
    It should have been built at 1st century and have been used as baths up to the end of 3rd century, when its function changed until being left ca. 5th century.
Planta de las termas de Clunia Los Arcos II
Plan of the termae of Clunia "The Archs II"
Los Arcos II
The Archs II

  • A second whole "The Archs II", is difficult to classify since it has not been totally excavated. Its distribution is not yet clear and it is only partially known. A porticated palestrawas discovered. Behind it there was a big apoterium with an octogonal plan with a dome. It gives access to a frigidarium with two natatio -swimming-pools-. Then we find thetepidarium and then the caldarium both with a swimming-pool. Finally, a circular room would serve for the sudatio or sauna, endowed with a central fountain.
  • Close to the comitium there are other termae. They are lesser than the others and probably had a private or semiprivate use. They occupy the southern area of the so-called house nº3. They were probably for exclusive enjoy of its owners.