City of Corduba, Cordoba.
It often happens that Roman cities are created from military expeditions. In this case, it is not like that, since this village existed before Romans arrival, but its development comes after the establishment of military troops at this area. Original colony was founded by Marcus Claudius Marcellus, a Roman consul who visited this village at least twice: one year each time. At 152 b.C. Corduba was a Latin colony and went on being so until the end of the Republic. Its strategic value at Ulterior Hispania made it outstanding as a military center. Therefore civil population -native and Roman- were invited to look after the troops.
The city was walled: this wall is the most outstanding remaining from this age.
As it was governed under Pompeius partisans, Corduba was almost ruined after Iulius Caesar's armies victory after civil wars -battle of Munda-. Anyway, it kept its priviledges. Its military position made it be still a great city. Demographic recession after civil war was enough to eliminate Caesar's enemies.
Administrative reforms by Augustus, made Corduba the capital of Betica province -Colonia Patricia Augustea-. This fact caused that the city improved and created services for a great urbs: a great urban reform was done. Walls increased, Via Augusta -that crossed the whole city- became Decumanus Maximus and a great bridge on Guadalquivir river was built as a new access to the city. Beside an aqueduct was constructed -Aqua Augusta-, gutters and public fountains.
Many comitiums with associated areas -vicus- were designed on the urban net. At Corduba vicus Augustus, Forensis, Hispanus, Patricia and Canteris can be seen. There were also residential areas out of the walled center. They were for high society, as pagus Augustus or for general people, as Secunda Romana.
City also improved under a social view: many schools were created, centers for worship, a new comitium... All that caused that great politicians were born in Corduba. This is the outstanding case of Seneca, a stoich philosopher and a master for Nero.
From Augustus age up to the end of 3rd century A.D. -highimperial age- this city lived its golden years. Many works already begun will be finished these days: the theater and walls; others were redecorated in marble, the most usual material. At Tiberius age the new provincial comitium was consolidated -forum novum- with a new and high temple for Imperial worship.
Remainings preserved from Roman age are: