Necropolis of Tugia. Funerary chamber of Toya, en Pearl de Becerro, Jaen.
Nowadays, this is the most important Iberian construction of all. Not only because of its almost perfect state of preservation, but also becuase of the monument by itself. Doubtless, it is the first architectural masterpiece on the Peninsula -beginnings of 4th century b.C.-: there is a prepared design, a synchronized realization and a careful finishing since constructive and aesthetic points of view.
Its clear Mediterranean features show that this was the burial of an outstanding person from community. Bastetian tribes received and inherited designs and constructive techniques from other cultures as Tartessian, Phoenician and Greek.
Its construction is the result of a previously designed process: first, the cavity is worked and "based" with stones that also served as a pavement. Then, walls were elevated -lateral and divisors- as integrated elements -banks, frames- were covered with flat stones. Finally, a tumulus -lost today- covered the whole.
Ashlars with irregular shape and size were used. They were carefully worked in order to fit each other. Different walls were joined introducing an ashlar in the next wall or extending files of both walls -crushed-. Construction is made with soft lime stone twice worked: one at the quarry, two at the work.
Construction has very clear features that must be exposed:
Its plan is almost square: 4,50 x 4,60 m.
It is divided into three rectangular naves: a central one and two lateral, divided in two rooms. In this way we have a division in five rooms.
There is a rectangular niche at the bottom. It is 0,85 m. high from the floor and is 1,06 m. wide and 0,35 m. high. Stones exceed it as if they were a shelf. This is also a "moulded" basis.
Left lateral nave, at the second room, has a new niche, as well as the running bank.
Right lateral nave, also divided in two, shows its running bank at two sides of the first room. The second one, also communicated through a gate, has un upper shelf on the bank at the right and central wall with niche. The curious solution taken for supporting this shelf with a pointed ending of the foot fit to the shelf angle is outstanding: so weight is concentrated at that point.