Necropolis of Tugia. Funerary chamber of Toya, en Pearl de Becerro, Jaen.
 
Cámara funeraria de Toya
Plan of the Funerary Chamber of Toya

 
Nowadays, this is the most important Iberian construction of all. Not only because of its almost perfect state of preservation, but also becuase of the monument by itself. Doubtless, it is the first architectural masterpiece on the Peninsula -beginnings of 4th century b.C.-: there is a prepared design, a synchronized realization and a careful finishing since constructive and aesthetic points of view.
 
Its clear Mediterranean features show that this was the burial of an outstanding person from community. Bastetian tribes received and inherited designs and constructive techniques from other cultures as Tartessian, Phoenician and Greek.
 
Its construction is the result of a previously designed process: first, the cavity is worked and "based" with stones that also served as a pavement. Then, walls were elevated -lateral and divisors- as integrated elements -banks, frames- were covered with flat stones. Finally, a tumulus -lost today- covered the whole.
 
Decoración rayada
Lined decoration
There are very interesting constructive works: fitting ashlars in order to harmonize files of different walls, the reduction of frames and lintels on the gates for adjusting doors. Also fitting precious ashlars in lintel and plinth that never touch lateral walls. Indeed it must be pointed out that these gates with lintel are the forerunners of the creation of an arch. They are also forerunners of capital, because of its lined decoration.
 
Ashlars with irregular shape and size were used. They were carefully worked in order to fit each other. Different walls were joined introducing an ashlar in the next wall or extending files of both walls -crushed-. Construction is made with soft lime stone twice worked: one at the quarry, two at the work.
 
Construction has very clear features that must be exposed:
 
Its plan is almost square: 4,50 x 4,60 m.
It is divided into three rectangular naves: a central one and two lateral, divided in two rooms. In this way we have a division in five rooms.
 
Nave central con el nicho al fondo
Central nave with a niche at the bottom.
Puertas arquedas
Arch doors
Central nave with a small exterior hall, was communicated with lateral sides through perfectly designed and decorated gates. It has a perimetral running bank. It is 25 cm. high and ends by the gates. The whole nave has a moulded cornice that joins the walls with the cover.
 
There is a rectangular niche at the bottom. It is 0,85 m. high from the floor and is 1,06 m. wide and 0,35 m. high. Stones exceed it as if they were a shelf. This is also a "moulded" basis.
 
Left lateral nave, at the second room, has a new niche, as well as the running bank.
 
Right lateral nave, also divided in two, shows its running bank at two sides of the first room. The second one, also communicated through a gate, has un upper shelf on the bank at the right and central wall with niche. The curious solution taken for supporting this shelf with a pointed ending of the foot fit to the shelf angle is outstanding: so weight is concentrated at that point.
El nicho de la nave centrals
Niche at the central nave
Encimera de la nave derecha
Shelf at the right nave