IBERIAN AREA
 
Influence of "iberian" culture includes the eastern center area of our Peninsula, Mediterranean one and Andalusie. There we found Turdetanians, Bastetanians, Oretanians, Contestanians, Edetanians, Ilergabanians, Indigetes and many other Pyrenaic tribes.
 
So, there was a conglomerate of different races. It would compose little to little the same nation: from 750 to 550 b.C. a pre-iberian phase can be seen. From 550 b.C. to 5th Century we talk about an old iberian one. Plain iberian is limited between 5th Century and Roman conquest.
 
Illeta de Banyets
Illeta of Banyets
(El Campello, Alacant)
Las Toixoneres
Las Toixoneres
Calafell
Vista aérea del poblado de Lliria
Aerial View of the Village of Lliria

 
Iberian architecture did preserve few samples in a good state. After the many deposits we can find today many facts can be learnt about technique of construction. Development of archaeology and help of different sciences let us find lots of urban points and necropolis that did change and reset accepted ideas and theories.
 
Templo Illeta de Banyets
Section of perspective of a Temple
in the village of Illeta de Banyets
Most part of founded villages could be distributed in three kinds: small populations without fortification in flat areas; fortified enclosures in higher zones and big capitals or "oppida". Oppida did control a big land where populations and enclosures were included.
 
They all built big stone walls for houses and fortifications. Doors and windows got wooden or stone "lintels" and, even, can be covered with vaults -false domes-, using the technique of progressive approximation of files of stones. It must be underlined that construction of houses with a rectangular plan appears clearly now in a definitive way.
 
Four generic classes of buildings can be pointed out: home architecture, fortresses, temples -burial buildings- and stores.
 
Usually, villages or "oppida" are placed on hills. These hills are also fortified with walls as well as celtiberian "castra":
  • Iberian Oppidum of Ullastret, in Sant Andreu d´Ullastret, Girona.BASIC INFORMATION
  • Iberian Oppidum of Olerdola, in Barcelone. BASIC INFORMATION
     
  • Oppidum of La Bastida de les Alcuses in Moixent, Valencia. This village was elevated in a longitudinal sense on a surface of 4 ha. on the top of a hill. It was surrounded by a big wall with more than 4 ms. high with big watchtowers. In spite of it, this village was destroyed by many invasors ca. 330 b.C. Many houses have been excavated and even a common housing. It is evident that these tribes were well linked with foreign cultures since many tools, jewells and pottery made in Greece have been found here.
     
  • Archaeological Park of Alarcos, in Ciudad Real. BASIC INFORMATION
    Templo de la Muela
    Plan of the Temple of la Muela

     
  • Deposit of Castulo, in Linares, Jaen. In Middle Bronze Age, village of Castlosaic began to progress because of its mines in Sierra Morena. At 7th Century it was a prosper city, as can be seen from buildings as the Temple of la Muela, with clear Phoenician features. Later it became the capital oppidum of Oretania, probably the biggest in Iberian Peninsula. Many necropolis of this age still remain: -Banos de la Muela, Estacar de Luciano and de Robarinas, Molino de Caldona, Los Patos- and their walls. After a phase of climax -from 3rd Century to 1st one- they began their decadence because of their pacts with Carthage.
     
    The city went on for many years, but it clearly showed it was a minor one. At 15th Century it was destructed. For this reason it has been named with different ways: Castlosaic by Iberian tribes; Castulo by Roman and Visigoths; Gestuluna by Muslims and Cazlona or Castaluna in Middle Ages.

 
We can also point out to burial constructions:
 
Dama de Elche
Maiden of Elche

 
Scholars admit that the most outstanding achievements of "Iberian Art" were seen in sculpture. It can be proved from the first magic-cultural representations of big stone animals (bulls of Guisando) to the more exquisite anthropomorfic stone sculptures (Maiden of Elche, Maiden of Baza, Maiden of Cabezo Lucero).
 
In this area we also find remains of foreign civilizations that founded cities and, therefore, let some architectural treasures: Tartessians, Phoenicians, Greeks and also Carthaginians.